The CLIO infrared laser facility is a linac based free-electron laser delivering tunable and powerful infrared radiation in short pulses. Its tuning range spans now from 3 to 150 µm. A new undulator is under development for further extension toward the THz spectral range.
Operated by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) the free-electron-laser facility FELBE provides picosecond infrared pulses. Two free-electron lasers cover the mid- and far-infrared spectral range from 4 – 250 µm.
FELIXNijmegen, The Netherlands
The FELIX Laboratory (Free Electron Lasers for Infrared eXperiments) in Nijmegen exploits intense, short-pulsed, tunable infrared and THz free-electron lasers. The four lasers FELIX-1, FELIX-2, FELICE and FLARE each produce their own range of wavelengths and together, they provide a tuning range between 3 and 1500 µm. The unique characteristics of FELIX make it a highly demanded user facility; yearly receiving typically a hundred researchers from all over the world to perform their experiments. Furthermore, exciting new research opportunities have been created by the combination of the FELIX radiation with the continuous high magnetic fields of the adjacent High Field Magnet Laboratory (HFML). The combination enables simultaneous studies in high magnetic fields up to 38 Tesla (45 T in 2018) and under intense infrared and THz radiation.
FERMI, operated by the Elettra Laboratory of Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., is a state of the art 4th generation light source, based on a high gain harmonic generation free electron laser. FERMI was developed to provide ultrashort (10-100 fs) pulses with ultrahigh peak brightness and energies from 20 to 350 eV in the first harmonic. The first three beamlines at FERMI are opening unique opportunities for exploring the structure and transient states of condensed, soft and low-density matter using a variety of diffraction, scattering and spectroscopy techniques.
FLASH, the Free-Electron LASer in Hamburg, started user operation in summer 2005 as the first free-electron laser for VUV and soft X-ray radiation. Currently it covers a wavelength range from 4.2 nm to about 45 nm in the first harmonic with GW peak power and pulse durations between 50 fs and 200 fs. It is operated in the "self-amplified spontaneous emission" (SASE) mode and offers five beamlines for users.
The new Free Electron Laser project, known as SwissFEL, will extend PSI’s unique platform of large interdisciplinary research facilities to serve international research teams from universities and from industry. The SwissFEL is an essential part of PSI’s strategic focus and will establish Switzerland’s leading position in scientific research for years to come.
The European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Facility GmbH (European XFEL) is a limited liability company under German law that was officially founded in Hamburg, Germany, on 28 September 2009. At present, 12 countries are participating in the European XFEL project: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland.
TARLAGölbasi / Ankara, Turkey
TARLA (Turkish Accelerator And Radiation Laboratory at Ankara) is located in Gölbasi town near the Ankara. The construction of laboratory building is finished in May 2011. The site also hosts The Institute of Accelerator Technologies (IAT). TARLA is based on 40 MeV super conducting electron beam (two 20 MeV SRF modules) and the electron source is a 300keV thermionic electron gun. There will be two buncher cavities (260 MHz and 1.3GHz) to establish desired time structure. There will be two undulators 90mm and 25mm period to form two optical resonators.