Elettra
BL 05.2 R - XRD1

X-rays are an invaluable probe of the structure of matter, and the range of problems where X-rays have proved to be decisive in unravelling the matter detailed structure and properties  is very wide. The X-Ray Diffraction 1 (XRD1) beamline has been designed (in collaboration with the Istituto di Cristallografia - CNR) as a general-purpose hard X-rays beamline and the features of the beamline allow to perform a wide variety of experiments. The light source is a multipole wiggler with a useful range from 4 to 21.5 keV. The optics consist in a vertical collimating mirror, a double-crystal Si(111) monochromator followed by a bendable focussing mirror. The multipole wiggler spectrum includes high photon flux at low energies, allowing the optimization of the anomalous signal of several heavy atoms (up to the calcium edge), and offering the enhancement of the Sulphur anomalous signal. The experimental setup consists in a Huber goniometer with k geometry fully controllable from remote. The beamline allows to make science on small molecules and large proteins via crystallography, run powder diffraction measurements at enviromental and non-standard conditions (high pressure, high and low temperatures). Transmission and grazing incience experiments are run routinely. The beamline is equipped with a Pilatus 2M single-photon counting detector and a sample mounting robot with a capability of 50 samples based on SPINE standard. Robot can opearte both in cryogenic ( for macromolecular crystallography measurements) and standard conditions (for powder diffraction samples stored in capillaries).

Beamline Energy Resolution
5 [eV] @ 12.4 [eV]
Beamline Energy Range
4 - 21.5 [eV]
Max Flux On Sample
1 * 1013 [ph/s] @ 10000 [eV]
Spot Size On Sample Hor
0.1 - 0.7 [mm]
Spot Size On Sample Vert
0.1 - 0.3 [mm]
Photon Sources

NdBFe Multipole Wiggler (Hybrid linear)

Type
Wiggler
Source Divergence Sigma
X = 1500 [urad], Y = 180 [urad]
Source Size Sigma
X = 565 [um], Y = 62 [um]
Deflection Parameter K
21 [-]
Energy Range
4000 - 21500 [eV]
Total Power
9 * 103 [W]
Number Of Periods
27
Period
140 [mm]
Monochromators

Monochromator

Energy Range
4000 - 21500 [eV]
Type
Fixed exit Double Crystal Si(111) with LN2 cloosed loop cooling
Distance from source = 24059 mm
Energy range = 4-21 keV
Fine tuning with piezo actuator; feedback from 4-quadrant ion chamber
Pre-focusing Mirror Type
Cilindrical Mirror with 50 nm Pt-coating
Radius (calculated) = 14.8 km
Distance from source = 22319 mm
Incidence angle = 3 mrad
Refocusing Mirror Type
Toridal Mirros with 50 nm Pt-coating
Tangential radius = 9.31 km
Sagittal radius = 55.27 mm
Distance from source = 28018 mm
Incidence angle = 3 mrad
Endstations or Setup

Experimental Hutch

Diffractometer
Huber Kappa Goniometer Series 515; 4-circle goniometer in a 60° kappa geometry; secondary detector mounted on the 2theta arm; XYZ head on top of the phi axis; standard mount according to ACA/IUC for Huber/Hampton standard goniometer heads.

Sample

Sample Type
Crystal, Fiber, Powder, Other:
Mounting Type
standardized loop (SPINE), capillary, CUSTOM

Manipulator or Sample stage

Sample Environment

Description
Capillary Environment
Temperature
80 - 1000 [K]
Description
Sample Changer Environment
Temperature
77 - 300 [K]
Description
SPINE standard loops Environment
Temperature
80 - 400 [K]
Description
Thin films Environment
Temperature
80 - 1000 [K]

Sample Holders

Type
Glass or quartz capillaries
Description
Diferent sizes are in general available from 0.1 up to 2 mm (ask the beamline scientist for details and availability).
Type
Cryogenic sample changer developed at Elettra
Description
Sample changer developed at Elettra for samples in SPINE standard vials (also capillaries mounted on magnetic bases) in air or LN2.
Type
SPINE Standard Loop
Description
SPINE standard loops for frozen macromolecular crystals.
Type
Brass specimen pins with platform or magnetic support
Description
Brass specimen pins with platform or magnetic support
Detectors

Dectris Pilatus 2M

Type
Hybrid pixel single photon counting
Pixel Size
X = 172 [um], Y = 172 [um]
Array Size
X = 1475 [pixel], Y = 1679 [pixel]
Thickness
3 * 102 [um]
Passive or Active (Electronics)
Active
Dynamic Range
1 * 106 [counts]

Detection

Detected Particle
Photon

MarCCD165

Type
Single chip CCD mounted on a 2theta arm
Pixel Size
X = 79 [um], Y = 79 [um]
Array Size
X = 2048 [pixel], Y = 2048 [pixel]
Passive or Active (Electronics)
Active
Dynamic Range
65536 [counts]

Detection

Detected Particle
Photon
contacts
Maurizio POLENTARUTTI
Giorgio BAIS
Techniques
Diffraction
  • Crystallography
  • Crystallography (biological macromolecules)
  • Powder diffraction
  • Surface diffraction
Emission or Reflection
  • X-ray fluorescence (XRF)
Imaging
  • X-ray holography
Disciplines
Chemistry
  • Catalysis
  • Electrochemistry
  • Green Chemistry
  • Other - Chemistry
  • Physical Chemistry
Earth Sciences & Environment
  • Geology
  • Mineralogy
  • Other - Earth Sciences & Environment
Energy
  • Other - Energy
Engineering & Technology
  • Nanotechnology & production processes
  • Other - Engineering & Technology
Humanities
  • Arts
  • Cultural Heritage
Information & Communication Technologies
  • Data processing
Life Sciences & Biotech
  • Medicine
  • Molecular and cellular biology
  • Other - Life Sciences & Biotech
  • Pharmaceutics (drug screening)
  • Protein and macromolecular structures
Material Sciences
  • Knowledge based multifunctional materials
  • Other - Material Sciences
  • Technique Development - Material Sciences
Physics
  • Hard condensed matter - electronic properties
  • Hard condensed matter - structures
  • Matter under extreme conditions, warm dense matter, plasmas
  • Surfaces, interfaces and thin films
control/Data analysis
Control Software Type
  • Tango Controls
Data Output Type
  • images, spectra
Data Output Format
  • cbf, tiff, mccd, csv
Softwares For Data Analysis
  • ccp4, xds, expo, fit2d, shelx, etc.