The Balder beamline is dedicated to X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) in medium and hard X-ray energy range, 2.4-40 keV. The high brilliance from the 3 GeV storage ring in combination with the beamline design will allow for time resolved measurements down to sub-second time resolution to be performed. The design of the experimental station has focused on development of experimental set-ups, with detection systems and sample environments, that allows for in-situ and in-operando measurements. Strong emphasis is also on development of experimental set-ups and methodologies for handing challenging samples, highly diluted samples and samples sensitive to radiation damage.

X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy are element specific techniques and provide atomic characterization of components, including local structure and electronic state. The techniques are not limited to samples with high degree of order, and are thus applicable to samples of various states, such as liquids, crystalline and amorphous samples, and colloids.

The Balder beamline serves a broad community of scientists representing a wide range of areas, such as catalysis research, environmental science and biogeochemical research, biomaterials research and life science, materials science, energy research, including photovoltaic devices, batteries and waste products from combustion, nuclear and coordination chemistry, as well as conservation of cultural heritage objects.

Techniques:

Absorption Spectroscopy: EXAFS, XANES
Emission Spectroscopy (in development): Resonant and non-resonant
X-Ray Diffraction (complementary technique)

 

Endstations or Setup

Balder experiment station

Description
The Balder experiment station is a multi-purpose station with sample manipulators, cryostat, fluorescence detectors, ionisation chambers, as well as imaging detectors. Its primary use is in X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy, but also complementary techniques such as X-ray diffraction, optical fluorescence and IR spectroscopies are used.
Microscopes
Video microscope for sample alignment.
Diffractometer
No dedicated diffractometer, but a sample stage based on a hexapod (6 degrees of freedom) that can be translated vertically and horizontally.
Spectrometer
A crystal-based X-ray emission spectrometer is attached upstream to the experiment station.
Base Pressure
1 * 10-6 [mbar]
Detectors Available
X-ray emission spectrometer
7-element SDD
7-element Ge
Ion chambers
XRD detector
Endstation Operative
Yes

Sample

Sample Type
Crystal, Amorphous, Fiber, Powder, Gel, Liquid, Gas
Other Sample Type
Soil and life science samples
Mounting Type
Pellet mounted in sample frame.
Powders or liquids contained in frame with windows.
Samples in glass capillaries or micro-fluidic cells.

Techniques usage

Absorption / EXAFS
XANES and EXAFS measurements are performed in transmission and fluorescence modes.
XES is available in back-scattering mode using a crystal based spectrometer.
XRF is performed using energy dispersive detectors.
XRD is performed using a Decris Eiger 1M detector moved by a robotic arm.

Manipulator or Sample stage

Description
Hexapod.
The hexapod is mounted on the linear translation system for vertical and horizontal alignment in the beam. It has six degrees of freedom and supports a sample weight of 2 kg.
Degrees Of Freedom
6
Translator Stages
3
Cradles
3
Positioning Precision
X = 1 [um], Y = 1 [um], Z = 1 [um]
Range Of Movement
X = 20 [mm], Y = 20 [mm], Z = 20 [mm]
Description
Linear translation stage.
This stage can move the sample vertically and horizontally across the X-ray beam.
Degrees Of Freedom
2
Translator Stages
2
Positioning Precision
X = 1 [um], Y = 1 [um]
Range Of Movement
X = 100 [mm], Y = 100 [mm]

Sample Environment

Description
The Balder cryostat system.
It is under construction and aims at sample temperatures below 10 K. It also includs automatic sample change from a cryogenic dewar.
Pressure (min)
1 * 10-6 [mbar]
Pressure (Max)
1013 [mbar]
Temperature
10 - 295 [K]
Description
Linkam furnace.
It is provided by the Sample Environment and Detector Support (SEDS) team, and supports solid samples and gas environments.
Pressure (min)
1 [bar]
Pressure (Max)
2 [bar]
Temperature
295 - 1373 [K]
Description
The Microfluidic flow cell.
This flow cell is part of the AdaptoCell project funded by the Swedish SSF agency.
Pressure (min)
1 [GPa]
Pressure (Max)
2 [bar]
Temperature
273 - 295 [K]
Description
SynRAC, liquid reactor cell.
The reactor cell is based on a heated glass tube with internal stirring. Can only be used above 18 keV due to thickness of the glass tube.
Pressure (min)
1 [bar]
Pressure (Max)
1 [bar]
Temperature
273 - 453 [K]

Sample Holders

Type
Balder sample holder
Description
The standard sample holder is a 22 x 75 mm2, 1 mm thick, plate with holes for samples.
The following sample holder plates in aluminium and acrylic plastics are available at the beamline:
21 samples, 5 mm diameter holes.
10 samples, 13 mm diameter holes.
16 samples, 3 x 7 mm2 holes.
Detectors

7-element Ge

Type
7-element Ge fluorescence detector
Description
Operational range: 5 - 40 keV
Time Resolved
Yes
Atomic Composition
Germanium

Detection

Detected Particle
Photon

7-element SDD

Type
7-element SDD fluorescence detector
Description
Operational range: 2 - 20 keV.
Coupled to a digital pulse processor (Quantum Detectors Xpress3).
Count rate throughput up to 2 Mcounts/sec/element.
Time Resolved
Yes
Output Readout Software
Developed in-house.
Atomic Composition
Silicon

Detection

Detected Particle
Photon

Ion chambers

Type
Ionization chambers
Description
MAX IV design, paired with the Alba EM# electrometer.
Time Resolved
Yes
Output Readout Software
Balder control system.

Detection

Detected Particle
Photon

X-ray emission spectrometer

Type
X-ray emission spectrometer
Description
The SCANIA 2D X-ray emission spectrometer is operating in back-scattering mode and is equipped with six silicon crystals in Johansson geometry. The focused X-ray emission line are detected using Dectris Eiger 1M area detector.
Time Resolved
Yes
Pixel Size
X = 75 [um], Y = 75 [um]
Array Size
X = 1000 [pixel], Y = 1000 [pixel]
Thickness
300 [um]
Output Readout Software
Developed in-house.
Atomic Composition
Silicon

Detection

Detected Particle
Photon

XRD detector

Type
XRD 2D detector
Description
Dectris Eiger 1M
Time Resolved
Yes
Pixel Size
X = 75 [um], Y = 75 [um]
Array Size
X = 1000 [pixel], Y = 1000 [pixel]
Thickness
300 [um]
Atomic Composition
Silicon

Detection

Detected Particle
Photon
Support Laboratories

Balder preplab

Description

The Balder preparation lab:

BalanceSartorius, 0.001g

Fridge/Freezer ATEX/EX classed, -20oC

Fume hood

Glove box MBraun Labstar, Ar atmosphere, including O2 and H2O analyzers, balance (0.001 g), pellet press, video microscope

Heating cabinet Binder 28 L, 230oC

Microscope Leica Zoom 2000, 45X

Pellet press Specac 10 ton press, 5 and 13 mm diameter pellets

pH meter Hanna 212

Centrifuge Eppendorf 5804 R, -9 - 40oC, 0.2 - 250 ml tubesI

Ultra-pure water Millipore, Direct-Q 5, Type 1 water

 

contacts
Dr. Konstantin Klementiev
Techniques
Absorption
  • EXAFS
control/Data analysis
Control Software Type
  • Tango+Sardana
Data Output Type
  • 1D spectra, 2D images for XES and XRD
Data Output Format
  • Spec/HDF5